In 70 AD Titus ended the siege of Jerusalem after destroying Herod’s Temple. In 1916 Ernest Shackleton completed the rescue of all of his men who had been stranded on the ice of Antartica. In 1963 the Moscow-Washington hotline between the leaders of the US and the Soviet Union went into operation. In 1967 Thurgood Marshall was confirmed as the first African American Assoc Justice of the US Supreme Court. And in 1984 The Space Shutte Discovery took off on its maiden voyage.

Notable people who were born on this date include French painter and illustrator Jacques-Louis David (1748), Frankenstein author Mary Shelley (1797), New Zealand-English noble prize-winning chemist Ernest Rutherford (1871), philanthropist Warren Buffett (1927), American astronaut Jack Swigert, who was the last minute replacement on Apollo 13 (1931), and journalist, author, and all-around thorn in George Bush Jrs side – Molly Ivins (1944).

Those who left us on this date included makeup artist and cosmetics firm founder Max Factor (1938), tough man character Charles Bronson (2003), Canadian American cowboy actor Glenn Ford (2006), and Michael Gorbachev (2022) who helped dissolve the USSR.

Today is the International Day of the Disappeared, to acknowledge and remember those who have been made to disappear, to uncertain fates, by autocratic regimes – like Argentina and Chile – often military regimes.