- 356 BC – The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, is destroyed by arson.
- 1925 – Scopes Trial: In Dayton, Tennessee, high school biology teacher John T. Scopes is found guilty of teaching human evolution in class and fined $100.
- 1899 – Ernest Hemingway, American novelist, short story writer, and journalist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1961)
- 1948 – Cat Stevens (Yusuf Islam), English singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1948 – Garry Trudeau, American cartoonist
- 1951 – Robin Williams, American actor and comedian (d. 2014)
- 1944 – Claus von Stauffenberg, German soldier, key figure in the June 1944 assassination plot against Hitler(b. 1907)
- 1998 – Alan Shepard, American admiral, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1923)
- 1998 – Robert Young, American actor and singer (b. 1907)
- 2015 – E. L. Doctorow, American novelist, short story writer, and playwright (b. 1931)