Three organizations were established on this date in history. At a meeting in a coffee shop, where else? discussions led to the foundation of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, in London in 1824. In 1903 the Ford Motor Company was formed, and in 1911 IBM – or the company that would later become IBM, was formed.

In 1858 Abraham Lincoln delivered his “house divided” speech in Springfield Illionois which laid out his stance on secession. In 1961 while on tour in Paris Russian dancer Rudolf Nureyev defected, while in 2010 Bhutan became the first nation to issue a total ban on tobacco.

There were also two women who went into space on this date. Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman in space in 1963. And in 2012 the first Chinese female astronaut was one of three who went up to the Tiangong -1 orbital module – space station.

The father of capitalism, Scottish philosopher and economist Adam Smith was born in 1723 – he later wrote the Wealth of Nations. Iranian educator and politician Muhammed Mosaddegh was born in 1882. He became the 60th prime minister of Iran, but then was ousted by a CIA-backed coup and was replace by the Shah. This date was also the birthday for American comedian Stan Laurel ( 1890), Washington Post owner-publisher Katherine Graham (1917), novelist and short story writer Joyce Carol Oates (1938), and American lawyer and 33rd Oregon governor Neil Goldschmidt (1940).

On this date we said farewell to the inventor of the gyroscope – Elmer Ambrose Sperry (1930), executed Hungarian rebel prime minister Imry Nagy (1958) , Chicago Bears player Brian Piccolo (1970, Brian’s Song), German-American physicist, engineer, and US space program poponent Werner von Braun (1977), and former German Chancellor Helmut Kohl (2017).

Today is the International Day of the African Child, sponsored by the OAU, the Organization of African Unity.