In 1830 President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act which denied Native Americans their land rights and led to forced relocations. In 1961 Peter Benenson’s article The Forgotten Prisoners in multiple newspapers is considered the founding of the human rights organization Amnesty International. And in 2008 the Constituent Assembly of Nepal declared it a republic, ending 240 years of the Shah dynastic monarchy.

In other news, the Sierra Club was formed by John Muir in 1892. The Dionne quintuplets were born in Ottawa Canada in 1934 – the first quintuplets to survive infancy. And in 1937 the German auto firm Volkswagen was founded.

All-American great athlete Jim Thorpe, of Sac and Fox tribal blood, burst on the scene in 1888. The inventor of the blowtorch, Carl Richard Nyberg, was born in 1858. As was the creator of James Bond, Ian Fleming, started creating in 1908. 1944 was a busy year with the births of former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani, singer Gladys Knight, and actress Sandra Locke. We also celebrate the birth of Russian figure skater Ekaterina Gordeeva (1971) and lead singer of the “swamp rock” group CCR, John Fogerty (1945).

The people who bid the world farewell on this date included American lexicographer Noah Webster (1843), Austrian-Scottish ophthalmologist and psychologist Alfred Adler (1937), WWI Medal of Honor veteran Audie Murphy (1971), disgraced abdicated King Edward VIII (1972) and American poet Maya Angelou (2014).